AA+: Standard and Poor's next to highest credit rating.
Basis Point: 1/100th of 1 percent.
CAD Government Yields: Yield levels in the Canadian government bond market.
Canadian (CAD) 10-Year Yields: The yield on the 10-year Canadian government security.
Dividend: A portion of corporate profits paid out to shareholders.
Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC): The branch of the Federal Reserve Board that determines the direction of monetary policy.
Federal Reserve: The Federal Reserve System is the central banking system of the United States.
G5: Consists of five of the world's leading industrialized countries: France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
G7: The Group of 7 is a group consisting of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
German 10-Year: A debt instrument issued by the German government with an original maturity of 10 years.
Inflation: Characterized by rising price levels.
Market cap-weighted: Market cap = share price x number of shares outstanding. Firms with the highest values receive the highest weights.
MSCI EAFE Index: A market cap-weighted index composed of companies representative of the developed market structure of countries in Europe, Australasia and Japan.
Price-to-earnings (P/E) ratio: Share price divided by earnings per share. Lower numbers indicate an ability to access greater amounts of earnings per dollar invested.
Purchasing power parity:Academic concept stating that exchange rates should adjust so that equivalent goods and services cost the same across countries, after accounting for exchange-rate differences.
Rate Hike: Refers to an increase in the policy rate set by a central bank. In the U.S., this generally refers to the Federal Funds Target Rate.
Return on equity (ROE):Firm profits (after accounting for all expenses) divided by the firm’s equity. Higher numbers indicate greater profits relative to the level of equity.
Return on assets (ROA): Firm profits (after accounting for all expenses) divided by the firm’s total assets. Higher numbers indicate greater profits relative to the level of assets utilized to generate them.
S&P High Yield Dividend Aristocrats Index CAD Hedged: The index hedges the performance of the S&P High Yield Dividend Aristocrats® against fluctuations in the Canadian dollar. The S&P High Yield Dividend Aristocrats® index is designed to measure the performance of companies within the S&P Composite 1500® that have followed a managed-dividends policy of consistently increasing dividends every year for at least 20 years.
S&P 500 Index: Market capitalization-weighted benchmark of 500 stocks selected by the Standard and Poor’s Index Committee designed to represent the performance of the leading industries in the United States economy.
Monetary policy: Actions of a central bank or other regulatory committee that determine the size and rate of growth of the money supply, which in turn affects interest rates.
S&P 500 Low Volatility High Dividend Index: The S&P 500 Low Volatility High Dividend index measures the performance of the 50 least-volatile high dividend-yielding
Sovereign Debt: Bonds issued by a national government in a foreign currency, in order to finance the issuing country’s growth.
Spread: Typically refers to a difference between a measure of yield for one asset class and a measure of yield for either a different subset of that asset class or a different asset class entirely.
Treasury: Debt obligation issued by the U.S. government with payments of principal and interest backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government.
U.K. 10-Year Government Yields:The yield on the 10-year U.K. government security.
U.S. Treasury (UST) Yield: The return on investment, expressed as a percentage, on the debt obligations of the U.S. government.
Yield:The income return on an investment. Refers to the interest or dividends received from a security that is typically expressed annually as a percentage of the market or face value.